Vaccines

AAEP Guidelines for Vaccination of Horses

The schedule below is a suggested vaccination schedule provided by the American Association of Equine Practitioners, and is based on generally accepted veterinary practices. Infectious disease control programs in conjunction with vaccination are important in maximizing the health, productivity and performance of your horse. Your veterinarian can help design a health management program to reduce exposure to infectious disease agents in your horseÌs environment and lessen the incidence of illness. Disease control programs should be tailored to your individual needs with consideration given to ages, types, activities and number of horses in your program. You should consult with your veterinarian regarding the specific needs of your horse.

Disease/vaccineFoals/weanlingsYearlingsPerformance HorsesPleasure HorsesBroodmaresComments
West Nile VirusFirst dose: 3 to 4 months.

Second dose: 1 month later (plus 3rd dose at 6 months in endemic areas).

Annual booster, prior to expected risk. Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk.Annual booster, prior to expected risk. Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk.Annual booster, prior to expected risk. Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk.Annual,

4 to 6 weeks prepartum (see full text in guidelines).

Annual booster is after primary series. In endemic areas, booster as required or warranted due to local conditions conducive to disease risk. Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk.
Tetanus toxoidFrom nonvaccinated mare: First dose: 3 to 4 months Second dose: 4 to 5 months

From vaccinated mare: First dose: 6 months Second dose: 7 months Third dose: 8 to 9 months

AnnualAnnualAnnualAnnual, 4 to 6 weeks prepartumBooster at time of penetrating injury or surgery if last dose not administered within 6 months
Encephalomyelitis

(EEE, WEE, VEE)

EEE: (in high-risk areas) First dose: 3 to 4 months Second dose: 4 to 5 months Third dose: 5 to 6 months

WEE, EEE (in low-risk areas) and VEE: From nonvaccinated mare: First dose: 3 to 4 months Second dose: 4 to 5 months Third dose: 5 to 6 months From vaccinated mare: First dose: 6 months Second dose: 7 months Third dose: 8 months

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, 4 to 6 weeks prepartum

Annual, 4 to 6 weeks prepartum

In endemic areas booster EEE and WEE every 6 months; VEE only needed when threat of exposure; VEE may only be available as a combination vaccine with EEE and WEE.
InfluenzaInactivated injectable: From nonvaccinated mare: First dose: 6 months Second dose: 7 months Third dose: 8 months Then at 3-month intervals From vaccinated mare: First dose: 9 months Second dose: 10 months Third dose: 11 to 12 months Then at 3-month intervals


Intranasal modified live virus: First dose: 11 months; has been safelyadministered to foals less than 11 months – seecomments

Every 3 to 4 months


Every 6 months

 

Every 3 to 4 months


Every 6 months

Annual with added boosters prior to likely exposure,


Every 6 months

At least semiannual, with 1 booster 4 to 6 weeks prepartum,


Annual before breeding (see comments)

A series of at least 3 doses is recommended for primary immunization of foals. Notrecommended for pregnant mares until dataavailable. Use inactivatedvaccine for prepartum booster. If first dose isadministered to foals lessthan 11 months of age, administer 2nd dose at or after 11 months of age.
Rhinopneumonitis
(EHV-1 and EHV-4)
First dose: 4 to 6 months
Second dose: 5 to 7 months
Third dose: 6 to 8 months
Then at 3-month intervals
Booster every 3 to 4 months up to annually

 


Booster every 3 to 4 months up to annually

Optional: semiannual if elected

Fifth, seventh, ninth month of gestation (inactivated EHV-1 vaccine); optional dose at third month of gestation
Vaccination of mares before breeding and 4 to 6 weeks prepartum is suggested. Breeding stallions should be vaccinated before the breeding season and semiannually
StranglesInjectable: First dose: 4 to 6 months Second dose: 5 to 7 months Third dose: 7 to 8 months (depending on the product used) Fourth dose: 12 months

Intranasal: First dose: 6 to 9 months Second dose: 3 weeks later

Semi-annualOptional: semi-annual if risk is highOptional: semi-annual if risk is highSemi-annual with 1 dose of inactivated M-protein vaccine 4 to 6 weeks prepartumVaccines containing M-protein extract may be less reactive than whole-cell vaccines. Use when endemic conditions exist or risk is high. Foals as young as 6 weeks-of-age may safely receive the intranasal product. A third dose should be administered 2 to 4 weeks prior to weaning.
RabiesFoals born to non-vaccinated mares: First dose: 3 to 4 months Second dose: 12 months Foals born to vaccinated mares: First dose: 6 months Second dose 7 months Third dose: 12 months AnnualAnnualAnnualAnnual, before breedingVaccination recommended in endemic areas. Do not use modified-live-virus vaccines in horses.
Potomac Horse FeverFirst dose: 5 to 6 months Second dose: 6 to 7 monthsSemi-annualSemi-annualSemi-annualSemi-annual with 1 dose 4 to 6 weeks prepartumBooster during May to June in endemic areas.
BotulismFoal from vaccinated mare: 3 dose series of toxoid at 30-day intervals starting at 2 to 3 months-of-age

Foal from non-vaccinated mare: see comments

Consult your veterinarianConsult your veterinarianConsult your veterinarianInitial 3-dose series at 30-day intervals with last dose 4 to 6 weeks prepartum. Annually thereafter, 4 to 6 weeks prepartumOnly in endemic areas. A third dose administered 4 to 6 weeks after the second dose may improve the response of foals to primary immunization.

Foal from non-vaccinated mare may benefit from: 1) toxoid at 2,4 and 8 weeks-of-age; 2) transfusion of plasma from vaccinated horse; or 3) antitoxin. Efficacy needs further study.

Equine Viral ArteritisIntact colts intended to be breedingstallions: One dose at 6 to 12 months-of-ageAnnual for colts intended to be breeding stallionsAnnual for colts intended to be breeding stallionsAnnual for colts intended to be breeding stallionsAnnual for seronegative, open mares before breeding to carrier stallions; isolate mares for 21 days after breeding to carrier stallionAnnual for breeding stallions and teasers, 28 days before start of breeding season; virus may be shed in semen for up to 21 days. Vaccinated mares do not develop clinical signs even though they become transiently infected and may shed virus for a short time.
Rotavirus ALittle value to vaccinate foal because insufficient time to develop antibodies to protect during susceptible ageNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableVaccinate mares at 8, 9 and 10 months of gestation, each pregnancy. Passive transfer of colostral antibodies aid in prevention of rotaviral diarrhea in foals.Check concentrations of immunoglobulins in foal to be assured that there is no failure of passive transfer.
*As with administration of all medications, the label and product insert should be read before administration of all vaccines.

Schedules for stallions should be consistent with the vaccination program of the adult horse population on the farm and modified according to risk.

EEE=eastern equine encephalomyelitis, WEE=western equine encephalomyelitis, VEE=Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis; EHV-1=equine herpes virus type;

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